linux+nginx+tomcat负载均衡,实现session同步

花了一个上午的时间研究nginx+tomcat的负载均衡测试,集群环境搭建比较顺利,但是session同步的问题折腾了几个小时才搞定,现把我的过程贴上来,以备用。
软件及环境是:
虚拟机上装centos 5.5
IP为:192.168.0.51 装上nginx和tomcat  6.0.32 命名为 Tomcat1
一台win7上装tomcat  6.0.32  IP为:192.168.0.50  命名为 Tomcat2

首先装nginx,我是参照http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/ 配了一个Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)环境,然后再加上Tomcat的转发。
我的nginx.conf 修改如下
#######################################################################
#
# This is the main Nginx configuration file.  
#
# More information about the configuration options is available on 
#   
* the English wiki - http://wiki.nginx.org/Main
#   * the Russian documentation - http://sysoev.ru/nginx/
#
#######################################################################

#
----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Main Module - directives that cover basic functionality
#
#   http:
//wiki.nginx.org/NginxHttpMainModule
#
#
----------------------------------------------------------------------

user              nginx;
worker_processes  
8;

error_log  
/var/log/nginx/error.log;
#error_log  
/var/log/nginx/error.log  notice;
#error_log  
/var/log/nginx/error.log  info;

pid        
/var/run/nginx.pid;


#
----------------------------------------------------------------------
# Events Module 
#
#   http:
//wiki.nginx.org/NginxHttpEventsModule
#
#
----------------------------------------------------------------------

events 
{
    worker_connections  
10240;
}



#
----------------------------------------------------------------------
# HTTP Core Module
#
#   http:
//wiki.nginx.org/NginxHttpCoreModule 
#
#
----------------------------------------------------------------------

http 
{
    include       
/etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type  application
/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  
'$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  
/var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

server_names_hash_bucket_size  
128;
client_header_buffer_size  32k;
large_client_header_buffers  
4  32K;
client_max_body_size 8m;


    sendfile        on;
    tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  
0;
    keepalive_timeout  
65;

    #gzip  on;

gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_buffers 
4  16k;
gzip_http_version 
1.1;
gzip_comp_level 
2;
gzip_types text
/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary  on;

upstream  tserver  
{
        server   
192.168.0.51:8080 weight=1;
        server   
192.168.0.50:8080 weight=1;
 }

    
    #
    # The 
default server
    #
    server 
{
        listen       
80;
        server_name  _;

        #charset koi8
-r;

        #access_log  logs
/host.access.log  main;

         location 
~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
        
{
          root  
/www/ROOT;      
          #fastcgi_pass  unix:
/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
         fastcgi_pass  
127.0.0.1:9000;
         fastcgi_index index.php;
         include fcgi.conf;
        }


        location 
~ \.(jsp|jspx|do|htm)?{
         proxy_set_header  Host $host;  
         proxy_set_header  X
-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
         proxy_pass http:
//tserver;#转向tomcat处理       
        }


        location 
~ (/dwr/)? {
         proxy_set_header  Host $host;
         proxy_set_header  X
-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
         proxy_pass http:
//tserver;#转向tomcat处理
        }



        location 
/ {
            root   
/www/ROOT;
            index  index.html index.jsp 
default.jsp index.do default.do;
        }


        error_page  
404              /404.html;
        location 
= /404.html {
            root   
/www/ROOT;
        }


        # redirect server error pages to the 
static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   
500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location 
= /50x.html {
            root   
/www/ROOT;
        }


        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 
127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location 
~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http:
//127.0.0.1;
        #}


        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 
127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location 
~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   
127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  
/scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}


        # deny access to .htaccess files, 
if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location 
~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}

    }


    # Load config files from the 
/etc/nginx/conf.d directory
    include 
/etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

}


下一步是配置Tomcat集群。分别打开tomcat1和tomcat2下conf中server.xml
< Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
< !-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
< Connector port="8080" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
   maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
   enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
   connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
< !-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
< Connector port="8009" enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" protocol="AJP/1.3" />

找到<Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
Tomcat1下的修改为<Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1">
Tomcat2下的修改为<Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat2">

tomcat1找到
<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
修改为
<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster" 
            channelSendOptions
="6">

            
<Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
                expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/>
            <!--
            <Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.BackupManager"
                expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                notifyListenersOnReplication="true"
                mapSendOptions="6"/>
            -->
            <Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel">
                <Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService" 
                    address
="228.0.0.5" 
                    bind
="192.168.0.51" 
                    port
="45564" 
                    frequency
="500" 
                    dropTime
="3000"/>
                <Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver" 
                    address
="192.168.0.51" 
                    autoBind
="100" 
                    port
="4001" 
                    selectorTimeout
="100" 
                    maxThreads
="6"/>
                <Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter">
                    <Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/>
                </Sender>
                <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/>
                <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/>
            </Channel>
            <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve" filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/>
            
            
<ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener"/>
            <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
        </Cluster>


tomcat2找到
<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
修改为
<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster" 
            channelSendOptions
="6">

            
<Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
                expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/>
            <!--
            <Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.BackupManager"
                expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                notifyListenersOnReplication="true"
                mapSendOptions="6"/>
            -->
            <Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel">
                <Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService" 
                    address
="228.0.0.5" 
                    bind
="192.168.0.50" 
                    port
="45564" 
                    frequency
="500" 
                    dropTime
="3000"/>
                <Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver" 
                    address
="192.168.0.50" 
                    autoBind
="100" 
                    port
="4000" 
                    selectorTimeout
="100" 
                    maxThreads
="6"/>
                <Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter">
                    <Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/>
                </Sender>
                <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/>
                <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/>
            </Channel>
            <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve" filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/>
            
            
<ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteSessionIDBinderListener"/>
            <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
        </Cluster>



还需要在程序的web.xml里面</web-app>前面加入以下这句话
<distributable/>
session同步到这里设置完毕

服务器的启动顺序如下:
tomcat1 --> |tomcat2 --> |nginx
先启动tocmat1,tomcat1启动完全的时候再启动tomcat2,等两个tocmat全启动之后,再启动nginx

负载的时候可以用APACHE或NGINX,如果什么都不用,两台一接防问了话,可能会出错极session不同步的问题,网上也很多人介意不要做seeeion同步,这样会降低机器的性能,有一个方法可以,就是NGINX的ip_hash,这样至少可以保证客户端去防问同一台TOCMAT,除非那台TOCMAT挂了

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